A 2017 Analysis of the Burning Man Festival

A 2017 Analysis of the Burning Man Festival

Executive Summary

Burning Man is successful because it plays into an individuals sense of self, exploration, extreme escapism and community. Experiences are the next step in what is called the ‘progression of economic value’ - with music and many other luxuries being so common in today’s age, the consumer seeks something special, unique, and one-off. Not to mentioned, that events from live acts is the top factor in an artist achieving a stable revenue, due to music being so accessible.

Burning Man is the ‘Burners’ individuality from this ‘default world’.

Thus, the successful idea is vital for all; the successful events are vital for an artist. Therefore, when and how, to we enter into the experience economy? This is what businesses and brands must focus on, not just artists. Burning Man has achieved this in spectacular fashion, and may potentially be the blueprint for (present and future) festivals to follow.

Disclaimer: This report was written in Dec 2017 for Live Music module (MA Music Business, University of Westminster).

Keywords: experience, culture, community, technology, networking, future

Contents

  1. Introduction

  2. Literature Review

    2.1. History | 2.2. Capacity | 2.3. [Finances]

  3. Analysis

    3.1. Why Successful? | 3.2. Impact | 3.3. Expansion | 3.3. Importance

  4. Conclusion

  5. References


1. Introduction

“Burning Man IS Silicon Valley” ~ Elon Musk

Live music today is a sort over topic with everyone from the consumer, to the artist, to the major corporation wanting a piece of the action – it is the biggest business in the music sector (Frith, 2007) (Statista, 2017). Fascinatingly, an experience economy was born (Gobillot, 2008; Pine & Gilmore, 1998) and nowadays, consumers have become more willing to participate without prior knowledge of the musical acts, and in events/places that are exceptional. Facing issues such as headliners and reinvention (Webster & McKay, 2016), to name a few, the future of live music is something extremely interesting, and community cultural events almost mystical, however, is there a festival that already operates with factors, that certain live music events could evolve into?

This report will delve into the topic of such events, with its focus being Burning Man – “an all-inclusive volunteer-driven civilization” (Taylor, 2014). A place where “we don’t have ideology. We have ideas,” founder Larry Harvey says (2016), who doesn’t care what ‘Burners’ believe, but about their experience. “We’re all about emergent behaviour” (Harvey, 2016). Burning Man is relevant to the live music industry not because of the music per se, but because it has successful created this community and experience.

John Morehead, a frequent analysist of Burning Man, states, the significance of Burning Man as a social and cultural phenomenon is evident (2009). The experience of this festival is unique (Doherty, 2007) and one that incorporates a variety of fields including music, art, technology and networking (Burning Man, 2017). It has become the focus of academic analysis in the context of religion in popular culture (Morehead, 2009), which is what makes this festival fascinating to study. Doubled by the fact that Burning Man, like many others today (Bottorff, 2015), is a transformational festival (Clusini, 2017; Bottorff, 2015). Intriguing as they allow a “continuous, almost unmanageable reshaping of their map” (Clusini, 2017).

“Those connected with this event understand it as a festival of expression which results in the creation of community” (Morehead, 2009), significant as that is what seems to be happening with many other festivals throughout the world. Burning Man especially, is creating a social order relevant to our time right now (Beres, 2012).
Silicon Valley has had a close connection to this event since its inception (Taylor, 2014), with Elon Musk going as far in saying that Burning Man is Silicon Valley (Buhr, 2014; Peterson, 2017), but is this its dark heart? One that fosters and reinforces the notion that these young tech workers can remake the world without anyone else’s input? (Spencer, 2015).

With this combination of new age thinkers and technology, this topic is especially fascinating as it may be the future for music festivals, or some at least.

Arial view of Burning Man | Image Credits: Burning Man

Arial view of Burning Man | Image Credits: Burning Man


2. Literature Review

First, we will look into this festival’s history and specifics. Important to recognise now is that Burning Man seeks to spread its 10 principles across different social and physical environments (Clusini, 2017), those being – Radical Inclusion, Gifting, Decommodification, Radical Self-reliance, Radical Self-expression, Communal Effort, Civic Responsibility, Leaving No Trace, Participation and Immediacy (Buring Man, 2017).

2.1. History

Burning Man is a weeklong festival that takes place once a year over Labour Day weekend in a remote alkali flat in the Nevada desert (Doherty, 2007; Spencer, 2015; Bradshaw, 2016). A large-scale social experiment doing away with “several of the most fundamental institutions underlying modern civilization” (Galef, 2011), consisting of art, music and community (Burning Man, 2017; Morehead, 2009; Harvey, 2016).

Baker Beach, 1986: a group of 20 people came together as Larry Harvey and Jerry James burned a wooden figure in honour of the Summer Solstice.

The community of Burning Man | Image Credits:  Karim Tabar

The community of Burning Man | Image Credits: Karim Tabar

It can be traced back to a gathering of about 20 participants at Baker Beach in 1986 (Doherty, 2007), spontaneously coming together as Larry Harvey and Jerry James burned a wooden figure in honour of the Summer Solstice (Morehead, 2009). Through a positive response and growing crowds, the figure was named ‘Burning Man’ in 1988 (Morehead, 2009).
1989 saw the first network, Cacophony Society, that blew up this experience (Clusini, 2017) and was fostered by the rise of the internet. Through an email version of an internet forum, Burning Man co-founder Michael Mikel, publicised the gathering in the Cacophony Society newsletter which resulted in attendees doubling (Clusini, 2017). Evidently, this crowd had to move from Baker Beach, finding freedom in the desert of Nevada (Doherty, 2007; Clusini, 2017).

1992 saw the involvement of San Francisco area artists and “by 1993 the artistic emphasis [became] so substantial that the festival began to function both as an outlet for artistic expression as well as an experiment in intentional community” (Morehead, 2009).

Setting the stage for current Burning Man events, is the Department of Public Works (DPW) who arrive at the wasteland months in advance to construct the vast public spaces of Center Camp and the ‘Temple’ (Beres, 2012). The organisational structure that holds the event resists any fixed meanings and encourages all participants to find their own meanings of the festival and their experience (Morehead, 2009).

In contrast to outsider’s beliefs, it has always been “ruled by all kinds of techno-smart futuristic punks rather than nostalgic hippies or dippy ravers” (Taylor, 2014), with its two major demographic populations being Generation X and Baby Boomers (Gilmore, 2010). The first statement possibly playing a role into why the media tend to describe it as little more than a place of partying and hedonism (Morehead, 2009). Furthermore, contrary to popular belief, county police are numerous and ever present throughout the event as well as Bureau of Land Management (BLM) rangers, who work hand in hand with the Burning Man organisation (Taylor, 2014). This runs alongside the organisation and community already working together to create a successful event.

Now that a brief history has been look upon, we will now move into Burning Mans capacity and costs.

2.2. Capacity

“The DPW constructs a nine-mile long trash fence around the city” (Taylor, 2014) that contained 67,290 ‘Burners’ (as the attendees call themselves) (Burning Man, 2016).

*Important to note here about Figure 1, is that records from 1986 to 2000 are derived from the organisations speculation (Burning Man, 2017) 2001 (minus the years of 2002 – 2004) and onwards are official statistics from Burning Man reports (Burning Man, 2017).

Burning man is a city, not metaphorically, consisting of roads, street signs, lighted pathways and public services, including food and drinks, toilet systems, sewer and water trucks (Taylor, 2014).

2.3. Attendee Costs and Organisation Expenses and Revenue

While the gathering has been written off as wasteful, it’s not cheap to attend, Beres recalls (2012), spending $1,200 in six days. Whereas Larry Harvey states that you can easily run with $1000, including the ticket (Limbach, 2014). Though nothing in comparison to the billionaires continuing to eat and drink luxuriously throughout the event, however this can be seen at every festival – ridiculous overspending to enjoy the experience and show extravagance or generosity to others at unexpected moments (Taylor, 2014).
However, “Burning Man famously eschews conventional market systems at the event itself” (Limbach, 2014) and money is banned, other than to pay for ice and coffee from the Center Camp Café (Morehead, 2009; Bradshaw, 2016). A reasoning submerged in community and togetherness, stated perfectly by Larry Harvey, “Burning Man is like a family picnic. Would you sell things to one another at a family picnic? No, you’d share things” (Moretta, 2017; Limbach, 2014).

The organisation went from a Limited Liability Company to a non-profit in 2011, receiving is 501(c)3 status in May 2012 (Burning Man, 2014) and had total expenditures of $26.8 million in 2013, $30.1 million in 2014 and $35.8 million in 2015 (Burning Man, 2017; Limbach, 2014) – interestingly these expense reports, as well as end of year reports, stop at 2015.

Annual revenues boast an excess of $30m while tickets cost nearly $400 apiece (Bradshaw, 2016) (Burning Man, 2017). While several tech entrepreneurs — including an Airbnb founder and a venture capitalist who backed Twitter and Snapchat — donated $6m to Burning Man (Bradshaw, 2016). Harvey acknowledges (but does not deny) speculation that anonymous donors might include Google team or Elon Musk.
“Independent funding, radical participation, creativity and oneness are just some of its values” (Clusini, 2017), so it’s not hard to see why individuals from all over the world are willing to donate their money to this organisation, artists and communities within.

This external funding to the organisation is returned by Burning Man to those around it, giving local law enforcement agencies £301,660 in 2013, alongside “$4.5 million spent on Bureau of Land Management and other usage fees” (Limbach, 2014).

Concluding a review into Burning Man and its activities, let’s us now move into its analysis – consisting of its criticisms, successful attributes, impact, expansion and importance.
Beneficial to mention here, is that with all the analysis from academics studying this event to the reporters and journalists, what must be kept in mind is self-understanding – as a contrast shift is made from the insiders understanding to the outsiders perspective (Morehead, 2009).

The largest example of America consciously creating a modern mythology.


3. Analysis

This ecosystem is formed of communities, groups, tribes, influencers, brands, organisations, events, official and unofficial channels (Clusini, 2017) but it is earning a reputation as a networking event of Silicon Valley personnel (Spencer, 2015) for better or worse (Limbach, 2014; Spencer, 2015).
Is Burning Man becoming more a brand experience than an experience of change? (Clusini, 2017).
More exclusive ‘Turnkey camps’ appeared and increased with the ticket price - $35 in 1994 to $390 in 2015 (Spencer, 2015); however, as Frith states, “costs of live music do continue to rise faster than general inflation” (2007). Data shows that from 2010 to 2014, ‘Burners’ who make more than $300,000 a year doubled from 1.4% to 2.7% (Burning Man, 2017; Spencer, 2015). This increased to 2.9% in 2015 (Burning Man, 2015) then jumped to 3.4% in 2016 (Burning Man, 2016), with the median personal income figures increasing from $51,100 in 2013 to $60,000 in 2016 (Burning Man, 2016).
Those that do have a problem with this surge of wealthy presence, think that paying people to come, take care of you and clean up after you are missing the point (Spencer, 2015). Although everyone has an equal voice and is invited to participate, those with the most money decide what kind of society Burning Man will be (Spencer, 2015).
Speaking on the figures presented above, we may see Burning Man’s future with only those that can afford it, and turn similar to live music – “once a sector renowned for its glorious amateurism is being taken over by multi-billion-dollar corporations” (Frith, 2007).

 
Arial view of Burning Man | Image Credits: Burning Man

Arial view of Burning Man | Image Credits: Burning Man

 

Other criticisms include negative effects on the environment – however it is stated that a post-festival cleanup is required leaving no damage to the desert (Morehead, 2009) – , gentrification, photography restrictions (Rothman, 2013; Kozinets, 2002) and the contradiction of a huge amount of money going into creating a week that is free (Rothman, 2013), however Larry Harvey states that those who belief this “misunderstand the intent of the experiment” (Limbach, 2014), it’s not against money, but it’s not about money (Harvey, 2014). Market economics are mandatory when assembling a city.

As mentioned before, the insider perspective is important as it is contrasted with the analysis and interpretations of those outside the intentional community (Morehead, 2009). A big presumption being the law and order, common knowledge now that Burning Man is full of law enforcement, they have just perfect the art of blending in. The notion that one has complete freedom to open disregard federal or Nevada state law is a dangerous myth (Taylor, 2014).

With several criticisms being touched upon, we will now look into why Burning Man has become so successful.

3.1. Why Successful?

Firstly, touching briefly on one ‘barriers to entry’ – product differentiation (Porter, 1979) –  as Burning Man has become something entirely unique and unlike anything before it. It “eschews doctrine and dogma, and sternly resists fixed meanings for its activities” (Morehead, 2009).

‘Burners’ are no mere attendees, rather active participants.

One reason may be that this is the largest example of America consciously creating a modern mythology (Beres, 2012). Myths always create intrigue and mystery around the topic, they have conscious and unconscious elements (Campbell & Moyers, 1989) – Burning Man is consciously constructed but what happens within is the mystery from an outsider’s view (Beres, 2012).

Furthermore, this community, with “its universally agreed-upon rules and mores” (Taylor, 2014) is huge and ever-changing (Clusini, 2017). We can link these thoughts to Jamie Janover’s (founder of Sonic Boom Festival) ideas on how collective consciousness is taken to another level by technology (Clusini, 2017). Interviewed by social psychologist and transformation world influencer, Dr. Kelly Neff, he speaks on a “collective sphere of consciousness” that is manifest into cultures, festivals and celebrations. The festival / gathering ‘thing’ has been done since we were tribes hunting and gathering, now it has been incorporated into modern society and using technologies.

This is important as it’s not just the incorporation of technology, but also the cultures, ideas and morals of people and a community that come with such technology, resulting in this unimaginable event. One that has created an experience (Chen, 2009), relevant to live music, as “experience design will become as much a business art as product design and process design” (Pine & Gilmore, 1998) and these experiences are important and potentially a future for the music business (Behr, et al., 2016; Caru & Cova, 2006; Frith, 2007; Pine & Gilmore, 1998; Tschmuck, et al., 2017).

3.1.1.    Niche Market and Community

Burning Man taps in to its niche market and uniqueness by its many principles (Buring Man, 2017), one being gifting (Morehead, 2009), something that “fuels the kaleidoscopic pageant of art, music and play” (Limbach, 2014). Created as “participants were unwilling to distance themselves from others through economic transactions” (Harvey, 2014). Another look into the coming together and bond of this community, one that meets ‘Burners’ with the greeting “Welcome Home” (Doherty, 2007; Morehead, 2009). ‘Burners’ are no mere attendees, rather active participants (Spencer, 2015; Pine & Gilmore, 1998) – they create the city, the interaction, the music, the art, the performance and ultimately the experience (Spencer, 2015). Significant as the value of live music to the media is their ability to represent a community (Frith, 2007).

london_2014_5907-h_2016.jpg

A shunning of transactions, consumerism, sponsorship and advertising plays well into one of Burning Man principles, decommodification (Morehead, 2009; Limbach, 2014). Could this be a pleasant relief and escape from the reality of everyday life? Burning Man isn’t seen as a sustainable culture – it’s an inspirational, creative tool to use when you return to life (Beres, 2012).
The location is other factor that puts Burning Man outside the box and interesting. It also represents the people who thrive there – those who are a little crazy, fairly determined and a whole lot of wiry and smart (Taylor, 2014).

This type of ecosystem isn’t the first to born, Tomorrowland claims to be the ultimate connector (Clusini, 2017), capturing visions such as ‘music will unite us forever’ and ‘live today, love tomorrow, unite forever’ (Tomorrowland, 2017; Clusini, 2017). However, festivals like Tomorrowland and Coachella are “present in the ecosystem but not classified as a transformational festival per se” (Clusini, 2017). Those that do include Boom Festival, Fusion Festival, Symbiosis Gathering, and leading the way, Burning Man (Bottorff, 2015; Doucette, 2016; Clusini, 2017).

3.1.2.    Creative Hub

Burning Man is a valuable container for such exploration (Beres, 2012), a willingness to create a different reality, away from rules and conventions of mainstream society (Clusini, 2017), through the assistance of music, art, community and creativity.
Where there are social desires, there will be entrepreneurs (Frith, 2007) and Burning Man is acquiring these elite players that control the creative technology industry by the hundreds, possibly because they may too be fascinated by the festivals creation to “experience separation from the world of routine experience” (Morehead, 2009).

Now that several reasons to Burning Mans success have been examined, to follow on will be its impact – economically and socially.

3.2. Impact of Burning Man

A more tangible proof of impact created by the Burning Mans official network is represented by the Burning Man Global Leadership Conference (Clusini, 2017). The GLC show how a network of community leaders could bring Burning Mans vision to the world. This main goal being to bring to humanity the cultural change ignited by Black Rock City (Clusini, 2017), “giving a new shape to society that differs from conventional contemporary values” (Clusini, 2017).

3.2.1.    Economic Impact

Here we will look more into the economic impact of attending ‘Burners’ rather than that of the actual Burning Man organisation (Limbach, 2014) which has been mentioned previously.

Towns on route to Burning Man initially had the mentality like many others surroundings the different festivals throughout the world – ‘don’t stop here’. This has evolved into the active vocalization of, ‘please stop here and help out local stores’ (Johnson, 2017).
An annual migration of ‘Burners’ travelling Highway 447 through a small town called Gerlach is inevitable, however the events economic impact on the town is unclear (Johnson, 2017). Although unofficial economic numbers are tossed around, such statistics and estimates reported suffer from exaggeration as an in-depth study has yet to be conducted (Johnson, 2017). However, Burning Man does have a census completed by its ‘Burners’ (Burning Man, 2017; Limbach, 2014; Spencer, 2015), started in 2002 (Burning Man, 2017).

Executive Director of ‘Friends of Black Rock High Rock’, Michael Myers, has stated that the nonprofit has tried to keep a count of Burning Man attendees that came through the town, with little success due to the mass of people and movement (Johnson, 2017). But goes in to say that Burners approximately generated $4,000 in gross revenue for his organisation (Johnson, 2017). John Slaughter, country manager for Washoe (county including towns of Gerlach, Empire and Reno) says “this event has a huge, month-long, positive impact on our local economy” (Limbach, 2014).

Media company Northern Nevada Business Weekly (NNBW) travelled to Gerlach to talk with residents (Johnson, 2017). Here it is important to say that Burning Man website does promote and offer a description of “our neighbors” – the towns being Empire and Gerlach – and offer rules on passing through, as well as useful store information (Burning Man, 2017).
Little impact on Gerlach may be a result of “most of these people are pretty much self-contained” (Myers, 2017), however much of an effort the people of Gerlach make to entice travelers to stop (Johnson, 2017), or that Burners just want to get to the event, then get home. John Bogard (owner of Planet X Pottery in Gerlach) states “we get a very small percentage of people [Burners] coming through here” (Johnson, 2017). Whereas a contrast is given on spending in the entire state, with 66% of respondents spending more than $250 on their way to and from the event and 18% spending over $1,000. (Burning Man, 2013; Limbach, 2014).
The issue here possibly being Gerlach – when attending a post-apocalyptic, networking, art, music and tech, survival weekend, when does one consider buying pottery? Company www.LightUpWorld.com, operators insist they have substantial customers from Burning Man, as they are set up on the north edge of Gerlach and the last stop before people head out into the desert (Johnson, 2017). Interesting, is that this company now seem to sell items specifically just for Burning Man.

Like Gerlach now, Reno-Tahoe International Airport (RTIA) embraces this influx of ‘Burners’ because it provides “an annual stimulus to the airports micro-economy” (Limbach, 2014). Brian Kulpin, the airports vice president of marketing and public affairs at the time, reported an estimate that the airport secures $10 million a year from ‘Burners’ (Kulpin, 2014; Limbach, 2014).
Comparing the two impacts on Gerlach and Reno Airport offer an unsurprising conclusion that, of course the airport sees an economic impact, flights are mandatory for those travelling from far away. However, possibly the purchase of wacky memorabilia or pottery isn’t.

3.2.2.    Social Impact

It has built a strong community (Doherty, 2007) away from what ‘Burners’ call, the ‘Default World’ (Morehead, 2009). Music and art are symbols of our individuality (Frith, 2007), and Burning Man is the ‘Burners’ individuality from this ‘default world’.

Love sculpture by  Alexander Milov  | Image Credits:  Andrew Miller

Love sculpture by Alexander Milov | Image Credits: Andrew Miller

Silicon Valley has a vast interest in Burning Man and its community as it tends to hire the same kind of intelligent, active, unique, collaborative freethinkers who are drawn to this challenge of creating something special and exceptional on a blank desert canvas and demanding environment (Taylor, 2014). But, radically expressing yourself and disregarding everyone else’s worldview is precisely why this festival is so appealing to the “Silicon Valley technocratic scions” (Spencer, 2015) – be this true, is it good for us not in such elite?

Pine and Gilmore, 1998: “Companies will find that the next competitive battleground lies in staging experiences”.

Burning Man may have been hindered by its own principles, of becoming a festival that the rich love because it never had a radical critique at its core and could be easily controlled by those with power wealth and influence (Spencer, 2015). However, comparing those elite few to the 70,000 attendees in 2015 (Burning Man, 2015), will it really affect the future of this event?

Now that this festivals impact has been mentioned, we can continue to its expansion, including the communities it is inspiring.

3.3. Expansion

“For all its sham, drudgery and imperfect visions, Burning Man, is still gaining strength (Taylor, 2014). This expansion of Burning Man and the digital age will go hand in hand, just like its conception (Clusini, 2017).

As it grows in size and global recognition, there looms a question of these experimental economic principles having potential in the world beyond (Limbach, 2014), and an ultimate misconception that this wonderous event will be around forever (Taylor, 2014), the clue is in its meaning, a celebration of impermanence and change.
“Nothing in nature lasts” (Beres, 2012) and Larry Harvey has spoken on preparing for the day when it will be no more (Taylor, 2014), the addition of 10,000 new attendees each year will get too much, and the culture will collapse. Although BLM participation limits peak at 70,000 (Bureau of Land Management, 2016).

Nevertheless, the future of Burning Man may not be a worry, as the event constantly inspires and generates smaller forms of crowds (Clusini, 2017) “through a regional network composed of a number of regional gatherings” (Morehead, 2009). Maybe Burning Man accomplished what it intended to do.

Finalising its possible future, expansion and all else that has been evaluated so far, we will lead into Burning Mans importance and to end, conclusion.

3.4. Importance

Burning Man is important to live music because of the experience it has created, as Pine and Gilmore (1998) put it years ago, “companies will find that the next competitive battleground lies in staging experiences”.
“Ritual is a human function: it will appear whether or not we consciously create it. To be involved in actively engaging with a festival devoted to impermanence is more valuable than grappling with a technology that demands a sacrifice of integrity in submission of false ideas” (Beres, 2012). Participation is a key principle in creating such a vibrant, fleeting city (Limbach, 2014) and experience occurs when a company engages customers in a way to create a memorable event (Pine & Gilmore, 1998).

Some believe that it is “post-apocalyptic training”, but not in the biblical sense, rather, the process of watching what’s happening around us: a crumbling economy, split government and cultural anxiety (Beres, 2012). This event potentially creating a sense of ‘home’ (Morehead, 2009), significant as “the correlate of the migratory character of his experience of society and of self has been what might be called a metaphysical loss of home” (Berger, et al., 1974).

Before attending Grover Norquist commented on what he saw as a post-government kind of environment (Norquist, 2014) and after attending, stating that he witnessed “more camaraderie and sense of community than a church social…[with] more individual expression, alternative lifestyles and imaginative fashion than anywhere else” (Norquist, 2014). This supports the idea that this organisation and its attendees “band together and rush headlong towards a system of collective survival infrastructure” (Taylor, 2014). Burning Man made has created an experience and a community, something potentially similar to future music festivals.

Image Credits:  Andrew Miller

Image Credits: Andrew Miller


4. Conclusion

To conclude this analysis, we have delved into the history and statistics to Burning Man, proving it to be an event expanding in many ways. Music is now tied up with people’s sense of self (Frith, 2007) and this plays into the huge reason why Burning Man is so successful, as well as creating a community to bring these people together.
As Taylor puts it, “its high time we started seeing it (Burning Man) for the phenomenal jerry-rigged punk-built human achievement it is…before it leaves no trace one last time” (2014).

Experiences have emerged as the next step in what we call the progression of economic value (Frith, 2007), Burning Man is relevant to live music as it has successfully created an experience, something that the music business will surely have noticed. “The question isn’t whether but when – and how – to enter the emerging experience economy” (Pine & Gilmore, 1998).

It has created an impact to the world and surrounding locations in the form the main event and smaller regional events. It’s tight community and contrast to the ‘default world’ seems like the glue that is holding this event at such height in the minds of the adventurists, young techs, Silicon Valley elite and progressive thinkers (Gilmore, et al., 2005).
Criticisms will be forever present and something to keep an eye on, as is true in the real world, “when the commons are donated by the wealthy, rather than guaranteed by membership in society, the democratic component of civic society is vastly diminished and placed in the hands of the elite few” (Spencer, 2015). It is hard to ignore the possibly of Burning Man creeping closer and closer into this world.

Could this be the future of some festivals – seaming with community and experience (Doherty, 2007); full of mostly non-religious (Burning Man, 2016), Generation X (Morehead, 2009), free thinking (Chen, 2009) types; a wish to escape reality (Rothman, 2013).


5. References

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Clusini, A., 2017. How the Burning Man and Transformational Networks Evolved and Map of the Crowds.
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A 2018 Report on Streaming & the Value Gap

A 2018 Report on Streaming & the Value Gap